List and explain the industrial application of Refrigeration

6.B] List and explain the industrial application of Refrigeration


Applications of refrigeration in chemical and process industries:

a. Separation of gases: In petrochemical plant, temperatures as low as –150oC with refrigeration capacities as high as 10,000 Tons of Refrigeration (TR) are used for separation of gases by fractional distillation.

b. Condensation of Gases: some gases that are produced synthetically, are condensed to liquid state by cooling, so that these can be easily stored and transported in liquid state. For example, in synthetic ammonia plant, ammonia is condensed at –10 to 10oC before filling in the cylinders, storage and shipment.

c. Dehumidification of Air: Low humidity air is required in many pharmaceutical industries. It is also required for air liquefaction plants. This is also required to prevent static electricity and prevents short circuits in places where high voltages are used. The air is cooled below its dew point temperature, so that some water vapour condenses out and the air gets dehumidified.

d. Storage as liquid at low pressure: Liquid occupies less space than gases. Most of the refrigerants are stored at high pressure. This pressure is usually their saturation pressure at atmospheric temperature.

e. Removal of Heat of Reaction: In many chemical reactions, efficiency is better if the reaction occurs below room temperature. This requires refrigeration. If these reactions are exothermic in nature, then more refrigeration capacities are required.

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