Explain different types of user-friendly interfaces

Explain different types of user-friendly interfaces


Menu-Based Interfaces for Web Clients or Browsing: These interfaces present the user with lists of options (called menus) that lead the user through the formulation of a request. There is no need for the user to memorize the specific commands and syntax of a query language. Pull-down menus are a very popular technique in Web-based user interfaces.

Forms-Based Interfaces: A forms-based interface displays a form to each user. Users can fill out all of the form entries to insert new data, or they can fill out only certain entries, in which case the DBMS will retrieve matching data for the remaining entries. Forms are usually designed and programmed for naive users as interfaces to canned transactions.

Graphical User Interfaces: A GUI typically displays a schema to the user in diagrammatic form. The user then can specify a query by manipulating the diagram. In many cases, GUIs utilize both menus and forms. Most GUIs use a pointing device, such as a mouse, to select certain parts of the displayed schema diagram.

Natural Language Interfaces: These interfaces understand requests in English or other languages. They have a schema like a database and a dictionary of important words. If the request is understood, a high-level query is generated and sent to the DBMS. If not, the user is asked for clarification.

Speech Input and Output: Applications with limited vocabularies, such as inquiries for a telephone directory, flight arrival/departure, and credit card account information, are allowing speech for input and output to enable customers to access this information. The speech input is detected using a library of predefined words and used to set up the parameters that are supplied to the queries. For output, a similar conversion from text or numbers into speech takes place.

Interfaces for Parametric Users: Parametric users, such as bank tellers, often have a small set of operations that they must perform repeatedly. For example, a teller is able to use single function keys to invoke routine and repetitive transactions such as account deposits or withdrawals, or balance inquiries. Usually, a small set of abbreviated commands is included, with the goal of minimizing the number of keystrokes required for each request.

Interfaces for the DBA: Most database systems contain privileged commands that can be used only by the DBA staff. These include commands for creating accounts, setting system parameters, granting account authorization, changing a schema, and reorganizing the storage structures of a database.

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