Describe the following RNA vaccines for Covid19 and DNA Fingerprinting

1 b] Describe the following i) RNA vaccines for Covid19 ii) DNA Fingerprinting

 RNA Vaccines for COVID-19 :-
  1. The RNA of the COVID-19 virus is introduced into the body; this enters the cells and produces harmless viral proteins that reach the cells’ surface.
  2. This triggers the generation of an immune response (antibodies) system within the body.
  3. Since this information about antigens is stored inside the body, whenever the COVID-19 viruses enter the body, the body produces antibodies to fight against these viruses.
 RNA Vaccines for COVID-19
1] Safety: these are not made with pathogen particles or inactivated pathogens; hence are non-infectious. It will not integrate itself into the host genome, and the RNA strand in the vaccine is degraded once the protein is made.
2] Efficacy: these vaccines generate a reliable immune response & are well-tolerated by healthy individuals, with few side effects.
3] Production: vaccines can be produced more rapidly in the laboratory in a process that can be standardized.
1] Unintended effects: the mRNA strand in the vaccine may elicit an unintended immune reaction.
2] Delivery: delivering the vaccine effectively to cells is challenging since free RNA in the body is quickly broken down.
3] Storage: needs to be frozen or refrigerated.
Advantages and disadvantages of RNA Vaccines for COVID-19

DNA Fingerprinting :-

DNA profiling, or genetic fingerprinting, is a technique used in forensic science to identify an individual based on their unique DNA profile. The process involves analyzing specific regions of an individual’s DNA, called markers, which can vary from person to person.

Working on DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications
  1. Sample collection: DNA is extracted from a biological sample, such as blood, skin, or hair. The sample is then purified and processed to isolate the DNA.
  2. DNA amplification: The extracted DNA is amplified using a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique.
  3. DNA analysis: The amplified DNA is then analyzed using Gel Electrophoresis. The DNA fragments are separated based on size and charge, and a DNA profile is generated.
  4. DNA comparison: The DNA profile obtained from the biological sample is then compared to the DNA profiles of other individuals, such as suspects or victims, to determine if there is a match.
1] Unobtrusive form of testing: DNA can be found in many body fluids and tissues; retrieving materials is simple.
2] Used for more than criminal justice purposes be used to create genetic profiles for suspects and can help people research their ancestry.
3] Collected evidence can be stored indefinitely: DNA samples do not degrade over time like other forms of forensic evidence & hence can be stored for longer periods.
4] Identify hereditary diseases: used to identify certain hereditary diseases that may be life-threatening if not discovered immediately, e.g., phenylketonuria.
1] Creates privacy issues.
2] Accuracy of DNA fingerprinting is overly influential.
3] It may show the risks of developing cancer, obesity, or other health problems over time. This information could be used to exclude people from receiving certain medical coverage
Advantages and disadvantages of DNA Fingerprinting

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