Write a short note on i. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ii. Muscular dystrophy

Write a short note on i. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ii. Muscular dystrophy


i. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:

            Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a group of progressive lung diseases that cause breathing difficulties. It’s characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The two main forms of COPD are chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

In COPD, the airways and small air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs become damaged or blocked, leading to difficulty in exhaling air. This results in a decrease in lung function, leading to shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. Over time, these symptoms can get worse and limit a person’s ability to perform everyday activities.

The primary cause of COPD is long-term exposure to irritants such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and dust. Other risk factors include a history of frequent lung infections, a family history of lung disease, and exposure to second-hand smoke. There is no cure for COPD, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

Treatment options include medication, such as bronchodilators and steroids, oxygen therapy, and lung rehabilitation. In severe cases, surgery may also be an option. In addition, quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to irritants is crucial in managing COPD.

ii. Muscular dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is a group of genetic disorders that result in progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles, which are responsible for movement. The disorders are caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins needed for muscle function. The most common type of muscular dystrophy are as follows

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually appears early in childhood between the ages of 2 and 3. DMD primarily affects boys but can affect girls in rare cases. The primary symptom of DMD is muscle weakness that begins in the muscles close to the body and later affects muscles in the outer limbs.

Becker muscular dystrophy typically becomes apparent between the ages of 5 and 15. Boys are primarily affected by Becker MD. The disease is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the hip and shoulder areas (the limb girdles), pelvic area and thighs.

 Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) typically appears before the age of 20, or  later in adulthood in both males and females. FSHD affects the muscles of the face, around the shoulder blades, and in the upper arms.

There is currently no cure for muscular dystrophy, but various treatments can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include physical therapy, assistive devices, orthopedic surgery, and medication to manage muscle spasms and pain. In some cases, genetic therapy and stem cell transplantation are also being explored as potential treatment options.

Bioengineering solutions for muscular

· Gene therapy: This involves delivering a functional copy of the missing or mutated gene to the affected muscle cells.

· Stem cell therapy: This involves using stem cells to replace the damaged muscle cells and promote repair and regeneration of the muscle tissue.

· Exoskeleton technology: This involves using wearable devices, such as robotic exoskeletons, to support and enhance the movement of individuals with muscular dystrophy. The devices use motors and sensors to mimic the movements of the wearer and help improve mobility. · Tissue engineering: This involves using a combination of materials, such as scaffolds and growth factors, to promote the growth and repair of muscle tissue.

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