With an example explain the development of DNA vaccines.         

With an example explain the development of DNA vaccines


DNA vaccine is a type of vaccine that transfers a specific antigen-coding DNA sequence into the cells of an organism as a mechanism to induce an immune response.

DNA vaccines, which are often referred to as the third-generation vaccines, use engineered DNA to induce an immunologic response in the host against bacteria, parasites, viruses, and potentially cancer.

The basic working principle behind any DNA vaccine involves the use of a DNA plasmid that encodes for a protein that originated from the pathogen in which the vaccine will be targeted.

Example: DNA Vaccines for Rabies.

            Mechanism of action:

  1. Viral antigen incorporated into plasmid.
  2. Plasmid is amplified to produce vaccine.
  3. Vaccine introduced into human cell enters nucleus through cytoplasm and gets expressed into mRNA.
  4. mRNA is converted into viral proteins by host enzymes.
  5. Viral proteins trigger immune system in host.

Importance of DNA vaccine for rabies:

  • Efficacy: DNA vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing rabies infection in both animal and human trials.
  • Long-lasting protection: DNA vaccines can stimulate a strong and long-lasting immune response.
  • Ease of administration: DNA vaccines are easy to administer, as they can be given via injection or even delivered orally
  • Cost-effective: DNA vaccines are relatively inexpensive to be produced compared to traditional vaccines.
  • Reduced risk of side effects: DNA vaccines are generally safer as they do not contain live virus.

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