What is Bioremediation? Explain the various types of bioremediation

What is Bioremediation? Explain the various types of bioremediation


Bioremediation refers to the use of microorganisms, plants, or animals to clean up contaminated environments, such as soil, water, or air. This process occurs naturally over time, but can also be accelerated through the addition of specific microorganisms or other biotic agents.

Types of Bioremediation

Bioremediation is of three types –

1) Biostimulation:

As the name suggests, the bacteria are stimulated to initiate the process. The contaminated soil is first mixed with special nutrients substances including other vital components either in the form of liquid or gas. It stimulates the growth of microbes thus resulting in efficient and quick removal of contaminants by microbes and other bacteria.

2) Bioaugmentation:

At times, there are certain sites where microorganisms are required to extract the contaminants. For example – municipal wastewater. In these special cases, the process of bioaugmentation is used. There is only one major drawback in this process. It almost becomes impossible to control the growth of microorganisms in the process of removing the contaminant.

3) Intrinsic Bioremediation: The process of intrinsic bioremediation is most effective in the soil and water because of these two biomes which always have a high probability of being full of contaminants and toxins. The process of intrinsic bioremediation is mostly used in underground places like underground petroleum tanks. In such place, it is difficult to detect a leakage and contaminants and toxins can find their way to enter through these leaks and contaminate the petrol. Thus, only microorganisms can remove the toxins and clean the tanks.

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