Discuss various types of losses in a transformer.

6. A] Discuss various types of losses in a transformer.


The transformer has two types of losses :
• Core or Iron losses [constant losses]
• Copper losses [cu losses]

Iron Losses (Pi)
Iron losses are caused by the alternating flux in the core of the transformer as this loss occurs in the core it is also known as Core loss. Iron loss is further divided into hysteresis and eddy current loss. Once the core is manufactured the losses occurs in the core are constant. Hence the name constant losses

  • Hysteresis Loss
    Due to the alternating flux setup in the core of the transformer, it undergoes a cycle of magnetization and demagnetization. Due to hysteresis effect there is a loss of energy in this process which is called hysteresis loss. The hysteresis loss can be minimized by using silicon steel material for the construction of core
  • Eddy Current Loss
    The EMF induced in the winding sets up an eddy current in the core, the losses due to the eddy current is called eddy current losses. The eddy current loss is minimized by making the core with thin laminations.

Copper losses (Pcu)
The copper losses are the power wasted in the form of I2 R loss due to the resistance of primary and secondary winding. The copper loss depends on the magnitude of current flowing though the windings
When the load is connected across the transformer the current I1 and I2 starts flowing in the primary and secondary winding.
The losses can be minimized by designing the winding with low resistance conducting material
Thus total losses in the transformer = iron losses + copper losses
= Pi +Pcu

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